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Chapter 113 Epithelial Precancerous Lesions

1. Cockerell CJ: Histopathology of incipient intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma ("actinic keratosis"). J Am Acad Dermatol 42:S11, 2000

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22. Weinstock MA et al: Reliability of counting actinic keratoses before and after brief consensus discussion. Arch Dermatol 137:1055, 2001 [PMID: 11493098]

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24. Thompson SC et al: Reduction of solar keratoses by regular sunscreen use. N Engl J Med 329:1147, 1993 [PMID: 8377777]

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27. Glogau RG: The risk of progression to invasive disease. J Am Acad Dermatol 42:23, 2000 [PMID: 10607353]

28. Berhane T et al: Inflammation is associated with progression of actinic keratoses to squamous cell carcinomas in humans. Br J Dermatol 146:810, 2002 [PMID: 12000377]

29. Mittelbronn MA et al: Frequency of preexisting actinic keratosis in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Dermatol 37:677, 1998 [PMID: 9762818]

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31. Guenther ST et al: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas consistently show histologic evidence of in situ changes: A clinicopathologic correlation. J Am Acad Dermatol 41:443, 1999

32. Lober BA et al: Actinic keratosis is squamous cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 43:881, 2000 [PMID: 11050603]

33. Czarnecki D et al: The majority of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas arise in actinic keratoses. J Cutan Med Surg 6:207, 2002 [PMID: 11951126]

34. Marks R et al: Spontaneous remission of solar keratoses: The case for conservative management. Br J Dermatol 115:649, 1986 [PMID: 3801305]

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36. Drake LA et al: Guidelines for the care of actinic keratoses. J Am Acad Dermatol 32:95, 1995 [PMID: 7529779]

37. Callen JP et al: Actinic keratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 36: 650, 1997 [PMID: 9092763]

38. Feldman SR et al: Destructive procedures are the standard of care for treatment of actinic keratoses. J Am Acad Dermatol 40:43, 1999 [PMID: 9922011]

39. Thai KE et al: A prospective study of the use of cryosurgery for the treatment of actinic keratoses. Int J Dermatol 43:687, 2004 [PMID: 15357755]

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41. Bercovitch L: Topical chemotherapy of actinic keratoses of the upper extremity with tretinoin and 5-fluorouracil: A double-blind controlled study. Br J Dermatol 116:549, 1987 [PMID: 3555597]

42. Simmonds WL: Topical management of actinic keratoses with 5-fluorouracil: Results of a six year follow-up study. Cutis 10:737, 1972

43. Weiss J et al: Effective treatment of actinic keratoses with 0.5% fluorouracil cream for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Cutis 70:22, 2002 [PMID: 12353677]

44. Loven K et al: Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of 0.5% fluorouracil cream and 5% fluorouracil cream applied to each side of the face in patients with actinic keratosis. Clin Ther 24:990, 2002 [PMID: 12117087]

45. Stockfleth E et al: Low incidence of new actinic keratoses after topical 5% imiquimod treatment: A long-term follow-up study. Arch Dermatol 140:1542, 2004 [PMID: 15611446]

46. Chen K et al: Short course therapy with imiquimod 5% cream for solar keratoses: A randomized controlled trial. Aus J Dermatol 44:250, 2003 [PMID: 14616490]

47. Korman N et al: Dosing with 5% imiquimod cream three times per week for the treatment of actinic keratosis: Results of two phase 3, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, vehicle-controlled trials. Arch Dermatol 141:467, 2005 [PMID: 15837864]

48. Harrison LI et al: Pharmacokinetics and safety of imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of actinic keratoses of the face, scalp, or hands and arms. Arch Dermatol 296:6, 2004 [PMID: 15083310]

49. Hadley G et al: Imiquimod for actinic keratosis: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Invest Dermatol 126:1251, 2006 [PMID: 16557235]

50. Stockfleth E et al: A randomized double-blind vehicle-controlled study to assess 5% imiquimod cream for the treatment of multiple actinic keratoses. Arch Dermatol 138:1498, 2002 [PMID: 12437457]

51. Lebwohl M et al: Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of actinic keratosis: Results from two phase 3 randomized, double-blind, parallel group, vehicle-controlled trials. J Am Acad Dermatol 50:714, 2004 [PMID: 15097955]

52. Szeimies RM et al: Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of actinic keratosis: Results from a phase 3 randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical trial. J Am Acad Dermatol 51:547, 2004 [PMID: 15389189]

53. Lee PK et al: Long-term clinical outcomes following treatment of actinic keratosis with imiquimod 5% cream. Dermatol Surg 31:659, 2005 [PMID: 15996416]

54. An KP et al: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in murine and human NMSCs: Implications for therapeutic approaches. Photochem Photobiol 76:7380, 2002

55. Wolf JE Jr et al: Topical 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses. Int J Dermatol 40:709, 2001 [PMID: 11737438]

56. Lawrence N et al: A comparison of the efficacy and safety of Jessner's solution and 35% trichloroacetic acid vs 5% fluorouracil in the treatment of widespread facial actinic keratoses. Arch Dermatol 131:176, 1995 [PMID: 7857114]

57. Witheiler DD et al: Long-term efficacy and safety of Jessner's solution and 35% trichloroacetic acid vs 5% fluorouracil in the treatment of widespread actinic keratoses. Dermatol Surg 23:191, 1997 [PMID: 9145962]

58. Lawrence N, et al: A comparison of the efficacy and safety of Jessner's solution and 35% trichloroacetic acid vs 5% fluorouracil in the treatment of facial actinic keratoses. Arch Dermatol 131:176, 1995 [PMID: 7857114]

59. Iyer S et al: Full face laser resurfacing therapy and prophylaxis for actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Lasers Surg Med 34:114, 2004 [PMID: 15004822]

60. Trimas SJ et al: The carbon dioxide laser: An alternative for the treatment of actinically damaged skin. Dermatol Surg 23:885, 1997 [PMID: 9357496]

61. Jiang B et al: YAG laser for the treatment of actinic keratoses. Dermatol Surg 26:437, 2000 [PMID: 10816231]

62. Ostertag JU et al: Recurrence rates and long-term follow-up after laser resurfacing as a treatment for widespread actinic keratoses on the face and scalp. Dermatol Surg 32:261, 2006 [PMID: 16442048]

63. Nestor MS et al: The use of photodynamic therapy in dermatology: Results of a consensus conference. J Drugs Dermatol 5:140, 2006 [PMID: 16485882]

64. Jeffes EW et al: Photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses with topical aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride and fluorescent blue light. J Am Acad Dermatol 45:96, 2001 [PMID: 11423841]

65. Kurwa HA et al: A randomized paired comparison of photodynamic therapy and topical 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of actinic keratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 41:414, 1999 [PMID: 10459115]

66. Piacquadio DJ et al: Photodynamic therapy with ALA topical solution and visible blue light in the treatment of multiple actinic keratoses of the face and scalp: Investigator-blinded, phase 3, multicenter trials. Arch Dermatol 140:41, 2004 [PMID: 14732659]

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